During the course of their careers, international managers are likely to be introduced to all sorts of different political cultures, many associated with protectionist attitudes that can become major obstacles to cross-border activity. The challenge is learning how to overcome these barriers. Clearly, it is less problematic working in countries with a strong tradition of open borders. The challenge then becomes determining how much success firms can expect to have in countries where other policy frameworks prevail. At a certain point, managers need to decide whether to invest substantial resources in such difficult environments, or whether the level of foreignness is too hard to manage.